Plenary Lectures

Metrology and Digitalization
Dr Martin J.T. MILTON
The International Bureau of Weights and Measures(BIPM), FR
Title: Comparable Measurements for a Digital World
Dr. Prof. H. C. Frank HÄRTIG
Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt (PTB), DE
Title: Metrology – a fundamental backbone for digitalization
Instrumentation and Sensors
Mr. Koichi TANAKA
(2002 Nobel laureate in Chemistry)

Shimadzu Corporation, JP
Title: The Mutual Contributions of Science and Analytical Instruments
Ms. Barbara L. GOLDSTEIN
National Institute of Standards and Technology(NIST), US
Title: NIST on a Chip: Revolutionizing Metrology through Quantum Sensors
Time and space, Connectivity
Prof. Hidetoshi KATORI
The University of Tokyo, RIKEN, JP
Title: Transportable optical lattice clocks to test and use gravitational redshift
Dr. Iwao HOSAKO
National Institute of Information and Communications Technology(NICT), JP
Title: Paving the way for the Beyond 5G/6G
Sustainability
Dr. Akira YOSHINO
(2019 Nobel laureate in Chemistry)

Global Zero Emission Research Center (GZR) AIST, JP
Title: Brief History and Future of Lithium Ion Battery
Dr. Hiroshi TSUDA
National Metrology Institute Japan (NMIJ) AIST, JP
Title: New materials and inspection technology for sustainable infrastructures
International corporation and Diversity
Mr. Xiang FANG
National Institute of Metrology (NIM), CN
Title: Regional Metrology Cooperation in Addressing Global Challenges and Stakeholder Demands
Dr. Yong-Hyeon SHIN
Yonsei University, KR
Title: The Power of Women Scientists and Engineers in the Digital Transformation Era

Dr. Martin J.T. MILTON

Director, The International Bureau of Weights and Measures(BIPM), FR

Biography

Dr Martin Milton joined the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in October 2012 as Director Designate and became Director on 1 January 2013.

During his term as Director of the BIPM, the organization has led the adoption worldwide of a new technical basis for the “SI units” that provides greater access and greater opportunities to exploit future advanced technologies. It has also launched a programme aimed at capacity-building amongst Member States and has reviewed its Mutual Recognition Arrangements (MRA) that provides a transparent basis for recognizing measurement capabilities between more than a hundred countries.

As Director of the BIPM, Dr Milton manages a staff of 72 from 13 nationalities.

Before he moved to the BIPM in 2012, Dr Milton worked at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), United Kingdom. He has a BA from Oxford University a PhD from Southampton University and an MBA from the London Business School.

Dr Milton has published more than 90 papers in peer-reviewed journals and has received several awards including the Finkelstein Medal of the Institute of Measurement and Control for notable contributions to measurement internationally.

Title and Abstract

Comparable Measurements for a Digital World

The worldwide digital revolution presents enormous opportunities for our economy and our quality of life. It also challenges the metrology community to drive through a digital transformation of the measurement data that our lives depend on. This will present two types of challenge for the metrology community:

How can we ensure that the activities of the global measurement system are fit for this new “digital” world? We need to develop new approaches to the digitisation of metrological processes and information.

How can we bring metrology to this digital world?Can the metrology community provide confidence in the outcome of digital processes through new applications of metrological concepts and tools (for example through the application of the principle of metrological traceability or through the development of digital reference data sets and digital calibration certificates).

The talk will present the work of the CIPM in developing its “Grand Vision for the Digital SI Framework” which aims to establish a framework for worldwide unambiguous and dependable data exchange that meets the principles of it being Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable (FAIR).

The talk will also present the work underway by the BIPM laboratories and coordination functions to provide machine readable access to BIPM’s data resources.

Dr. Prof. H. C. Frank HÄRTIG

Vice President, Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt (PTB), DE

Biography

Frank Härtig received the degree of Diplom-Ingenieur in mechanical engineering from the University of Karlsruhe. Thereafter, he worked as development engineer in the field of coordinate measuring technology. Herefrom, resulted that Dr. Härtig received his doctorate from the Technical University of Karlsruhe. After that time, he worked for several leading companies in the field metrology. Since 1999 Dr. Härtig works in the Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig. Between 2010 and 2012 he was awarded as a guest Professor at the Beijing University of Technology. In 2014 he became head of the division of mechanics and acoustics with more than 150 employees. In 2016 he was decorated as an honorary Professor of the Harbin Technical University, China. During this he become guest Professor at the Beijing University for a second period of two years. One of his worldwide key activities lie in the revision of the SI and in the field of Digital SI. In 2018 was also chosen as President Elect of the International Metrology Confederation (IMEKO). On May 2020 he became vice president of the PTB.

Title and Abstract

Metrology – a fundamental backbone for digitalization

The fundamental and central role of metrology in the field of digitalization is commonly overlooked. This has serious implications for the global networking of digital processes, since reliable control and evaluation of processes often depends on metrological data. Comparable to the time before the French Revolution, when there was a proliferation of units we find a similar situation today in the field of digital applications. Isolated solutions make it difficult to achieve cost-effective, secure and easily understandable communication between networked and autonomously operating systems.

The presentation will touch on current topics in which metrology plays a central role. These include, for example, the development of digital certificates and the construction of digital twins. Subsequently, applications in the areas of networked systems, Industry 4.0, self-learning systems and artificial intelligence will be shown.

On the initiative of some metrology institutes, the foundations have been laid in order to enable uniform machine-to-machine communication on the basis of the International System of Units (SI). This was taken as an opportunity to launch the "Digital-SI" initiative under the leadership of the Metre Convention as well. It is envisaged that a sustainable framework for the SI in a digital world supporting provenance will be composed of various data, services and tools aligned with the FAIR principles.

Technically, the basic structures are easy to define. Nevertheless, the question today is how long it will take to reach global agreement. The reason is the many redundant data formats established in individual sectors. But such problems were also encountered in the first period after the introduction of the metric system.

Mr. Koichi TANAKA

(2002 Nobel laureate in Chemistry)

Executive Research Fellow / General Manager, Mass Spectrometry Research Laboratory, Shimadzu Corporation, JP

Biography

Degree

1983. 3 B.A., Engineering, Tohoku University

Experience

1983. 4 Central Research Laboratory, Shimadzu Corporation.
1986. 5 Scientific Measurement Instru. Div., R&D Dep., Shimadzu Corp.
1992. 1 KRATOS Group PLC. in UK
1992.12 Analytical Instrument Division, R&D Department, Shimadzu Corporation
1997. 4 Shimadzu Research Laboratory (Europe) Ltd. in UK
1999.12 KRATOS Group PLC in UK
2002. 5 Analytical & Measuring Instru. Div., Life Sci. Busi. Unit, Shimadzu Corporation
2002.11 Fellow, Shimadzu Corporation
2003. 1 General Manager, Mass Spectrometry Research Lab., Shimadzu Corporation
2010. 3 General Manager,
Koichi Tanaka Lab. of Advanced Science and Technology,
Shimadzu Corporation
2012.6 Senior Fellow, Shimadzu Corporation
2020.4 Executive Research Fellow, Shimadzu Corporation

Honors & Awards

1989. 5 Encouragement Award from the Mass Spectroscopy Society of Japan
2002.11 Order of Cultural Merit Award
2002.12 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Research fields

Development of tools and methods for analysis of protein and carbohydrate structure

Title and Abstract

The Mutual Contributions of Science and Analytical Instruments

It can be said that analytical and measuring instruments have developed along with the need to accurately measure fundamental physical quantities such as time, length, mass and luminous intensity. In this lecture, I will talk about mass spectrometry, the history of its development, its contribution to modern society, and its future.

Ms. Barbara L. GOLDSTEIN

Associate Director, Physical Measurement Laboratory, Program Manager, NIST on a Chip National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), US

Biography

Ms. Barbara Goldstein serves as Associate Director of the Physical Measurement Laboratory, the largest operational unit at NIST consisting of approximately 1300 staff and associates and three joint institutes, and which is responsible for realizing and disseminating rigorous measurements to support commercial, defense and research enterprises. Ms. Goldstein manages the “NIST on a Chip” program which is establishing a new paradigm for precision measurement dissemination through a suite of deployable, fit-for-purpose, quantum-based standards to be embedded in products or installed at user sites.

Ms. Goldstein is contributing to the emerging quantum economy through international standardization activities. She leads a Standards Ecosystem Task Team for the Quantum Economic Development Consortium, and a Standardization Outlook and Maturity Assessment subgroup of the UN-based ITU-T Focus Group on Quantum Information Technology for Networks, and was nominated to lead a new IMEKO Quantum Measurement and Quantum Information TC. She’s been accepted as a 2021 Department of State Embassy Science Fellow for a mission in The Hague to advance QIS collaborations in the region.

Ms. Goldstein led the development of e-commerce standards that have been used in hundreds of thousands of business transactions; led roadmap efforts on the industrial Internet of things (IIoT) and factory automation; and developed and led the NIST Technologies for the Integration of Manufacturing Applications program which competitively awarded a cost shared research portfolio of approximately $150M.

Title and Abstract

NIST on a Chip: Revolutionizing Metrology through Quantum Sensors

Fueled by the convergence of Industry 4.0, the second quantum revolution, the redefinition of the International System of Units (SI), and advances in integrated photonics and nanomanufacturing, NIST has embarked on a sweeping program that will change the face of international metrology. Building on the success of the chip-scale atomic clock, which shrunk a lab of complex equipment run by Ph.D. physicists down to a commercial device the size of a grain of rice, NIST is miniaturizing its core measurement technologies into a suite of quantum-based standards that can be embedded directly into products and deployed on factory floors, in hospital diagnostic centers, or on satellites and aircraft, without the need to be brought back to NIST for calibration. These field-deployable standards take an entirely new approach to tradition measurements to create, for example, exquisitely sensitive e-field probes from ensembles of Rydberg atoms, or to measure optical power by sensing the slight force that light exerts on a highly reflective surface.

This talk will provide an overview of this program, known as NIST on a Chip, and some of the opportunities it is enabling. https://www.nist.gov/noac

Prof. Hidetoshi KATORI

Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo,
Quantum Metrology Laboratory, RIKEN,
Space-Time Engineering Research Team, RIKEN, JP

Biography

Hidetoshi Katori was born in Tokyo, Japan, in 1964. He received the B. Eng. (1988), M. Eng. (1990) and D. Eng. (1994) in Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo. From 1994 to 1997, he worked at Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics in Garching, Germany, as a visiting scientist. In 1999, he joined Engineering Research Institute, The University of Tokyo. Since then, he has been engaged in quantum metrology with ultracold atoms, in particular “optical lattice clocks” that he proposed in 2001. He has been a professor in the department of applied physics, graduate school of engineering, The University of Tokyo since 2010 and has been a chief scientist, Quantum Metrology Laboratory, RIKEN, since 2011. Since 2018, he serves as a Program Manager in Mirai-Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency.
He was awarded JSPS Prize, European Time and Frequency Award, and The Julius Springer Prize for Applied Physics in 2005, IBM Japan Science Prize (2006), Rabi Award (2008), Asahi award (2012), Nishina memorial award (2013), The Medal with Purple Ribbon (2014), Japan Academy Award (2015), Leo Esaki Prize (2017) and Micius Quantum Prize (2020).

Title and Abstract

Transportable optical lattice clocks to test and use gravitational redshift

Clocks are devices to share time using ubiquitous oscillatory phenomena in nature. We once relied on astronomical observations, and today we use far regular oscillations of cesium atoms to define the international system of unit (SI) for time, i.e., the SI second. Recent optical atomic clocks have demonstrated more than 100-fold improvement over cesium clocks, leading to a redefinition of the second in the future. This extreme precision, in turn, allows clocks to investigate relativistic spacetime curved by gravity, where clocks serve as gravitational potential sensors. Roles of the clocks are rapidly changing from those supposed previously.

An “optical lattice clock” proposed in 2001 benefits from a low quantum-projection noise by simultaneously interrogating a large number of atoms trapped in optical lattices. About a thousand atoms enable such clocks to achieve 10-18 instability in a few hours of operation. This superb stability is especially suitable for relativistic geodesy, where gravitational redshift between the clocks resolves a centimeter height differences.

We overview the progress of optical lattice clocks and address recent topics including 1) transportable optical clocks operated at a broadcasting tower, TOKYO SKYTREE, to test gravitational redshift and 2) an on-vehicle optical clock and its applications.

Dr. Iwao HOSAKO

Director General of the Wireless Networks Research Center and the Terahertz Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), JP

Biography

Iwao Hosako received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Tokyo in 1993. After two years with NKK Corp’s ULSI Laboratory from 1993 to 1994, he joined Communications Research Laboratory (former name of NICT). He is currently the Director General of the Wireless Networks Research Center and the Terahertz Research Center at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan. His research focuses on terahertz band semiconductor devices, cameras, and wireless systems. He was the Vice-Chair of the IEEE 802.15.3d Task Group and is currently the Vice-Chair of the IEEE 802.15 Standing Committee Terahertz (SC-THz). He was serving as a working group member of the Beyond 5G (6G) Promotion Strategy Roundtable of the Ministry of Internal affairs and Communications, Japan from Jan. 2020 to Jun. 2020.

Title and Abstract

Paving the way for the Beyond 5G/6G

The evolution of mobile communication systems has been remarkable. It has evolved from a communication infrastructure (1G to 3G) to a lifestyle infrastructure (4G), and has become an indispensable element in the lives of individuals. The fifth generation (5G) has become a social infrastructure that connects not only people but also things, as in the case of IoT, etc. Interactions between people, people and things, and things and things have come to have great significance in various aspects of social life. Interactions between people, people and things, and things and things have come to have great significance in various aspects of social life. The utilization of mobile communication systems is expected to progress at an accelerated pace in conjunction with the promotion of DX. The core network supporting mobile communication systems, servers on the network, and various interactions through cyber space woven by them can be regarded as a cyber-physical system where real space and cyber space are fused. In Beyond 5G/6G, the cyber-physical system is expected to become the neural network of "Society 5.0". In this lecture, I will refer to the "Beyond 5G/6G White Paper" published by NICT in March 2021, and discuss the direction of research and development for Beyond 5G/6G.

Dr. Akira YOSHINO

(2019 Nobel laureate in Chemistry)

Director, Global Zero Emission Research Center (GZR) AIST, JP

Biography

Dr. YOSHINO, a native of Japan, was born on January 30, 1948, and earned a B.S. and M.S. in engineering from the Department of Petroleum Chemistry at Kyoto University in 1970 and 1972, respectively. In 1972, he joined the research organization of Asahi Kasei Corp. in Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan, where he engaged in research on functional polymers and electronic materials. In 1981, he started a research effort on high-energy-density secondary batteries. In 1985, he invented a new battery system of C/LiCoO2, which would become known as the lithium-ion battery (LIB). He also developed a range of basic technologies required to make the LIB practical, such as methods to fabricate electrodes using metal foil current collectors, microporous separators made of polyethylene, carbonate-based electrolytes, safety devices, and charging methods.In 1992 he moved to A&T Battery Corp., a joint venture between Asahi Kasei and Toshiba for commercial LIB manufacture. In 1996, he returned to Asahi Kasei and continued further LIB research. In 2019, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He is currently a director of the Global Zero Emission Research Center (GZR), AIST.

Title and Abstract

Brief History and Future of Lithium Ion Battery

Global environmental problems are common issues for all humankind. We are working around the world to solve this problem. Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) must play an important role. The development process of this LIB and its future will be described.
LIB is secondary battery that is smaller and lighter, and LIB has made a significant contribution to the realization of the current mobile IT society. With more than 25 years of market experience in the field of mobile IT applications, battery performance and reliability have been improved, and costs have been reduced. And now, we are entering the next turning point for electric vehicles applications. It is not just that cars will be electrified, but it is expected that major social changes will occur when LIB is fused with future technologies such as IoT, AI, and 5G. I would also like to talk about this future car society and the direction toward the realization of a sustainable society.

Dr. Hiroshi TSUDA

Principal research manager, National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) AIST, JP

Biography

Dr. Tsuda Hiroshi is a principal research manager of National Institute of advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) and works as the leader of Sustainable Infrastructure Research Laboratory in AIST. He graduated in 1989 and received Doctor of Engineering in Materials Science in 1994 both from the University of Tokyo. He worked as a research associate at the University of Tokyo and a visiting researcher at the University of California, Berkeley. Then he has worked in AIST over 25 years. He also chairs the Research & Technical Committee on Maintenance Inspection of the Japanese Society for Non-Destructive Inspection. His major is fracture analysis and non-destructive testing using optical methods. His current interests are the development of advanced non-destructive testing techniques incorporating with information technology to secure the integrity of infrastructures.

Title and Abstract

New materials and inspection technology for sustainable infrastructures

Many infrastructures in Japan have been built in nineteen sixties to seventies that corresponds to high economic growth period. Several accidents of these infrastructures built over 50 years ago have been reported. The deterioration of aging infrastructures’ health has become an urgent social issue. This problem, however, confronts not only Japan but most countries. New approaches are demanded to tackle the problem. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) has established a Sustainable Infrastructure Research Laboratory (SIRL) in 2020 to solve the problem. Researchers majoring in a variety of field from measurement, robotics, AI, MEMS, materials science, and fracture mechanics are working in SIRL. The targets of SIRL are the development and dissemination of novel efficient and high-reliable non-destructive technology and new materials enabling long-life infrastructures. The following research topics are being conducted: integration of AI with structural health diagnostics to improve inspection accuracy, development of coating technology for improving structural durability and user-friendly inspection technology through information technology. The developing technology will be introduced in the presentation.

Mr. Xiang FANG

Director, National Institute of Metrology (NIM), CN

Biography

Mr. Fang Xiang took office as Director of the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China in 2014. Prior to this position, he had served as Chief Engineer and then Vice Administrator of the Standardization Administration of China (SAC) from 2007 to 2014. He has provided an effective and productive leadership to the metrological and standardization management during his term, successfully leading, in particular, strategic planning for these fields, and the launch of the National Quality Infrastructure Program, a grand state-level research grant for metrology and other QI fields.

He is also a Senior Researcher of NIM, with more than 20 years of research experience in mass spectrometry and analytical instrument. He has over 30 scientific publications, and is the winner of a 2017 National Science and Technology Progress Award of China.

Mr. Fang was elected in 2018 as APMP Chairperson for a three years’ term from 2019 to 2022.

Title and Abstract

Regional Metrology Cooperation in Addressing Global Challenges and Stakeholder Demands

The Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) focused its recent strategies and activities on contributing to the COVID-19 response and on addressing industrial needs. APMP has established a dedicated COVID-19 Response Program aimed at encouraging and supporting scientific, technical, knowledge transfer and capacity building activities that will directly improve its members' measurement capabilities for effectively responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. APMP continues to support its members in advancing measurement science, in enhancing mutual recognition of national measurement capabilities under the Mutual Recognition Arrangement of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM MRA), and to achieve impact for its stakeholders through focused engagement in areas such as energy efficiency, food safety, medical metrology, clean water, and climate change and clean air. An ongoing attention was paid to support members from developing economies in addressing their specific needs.

Dr. Yong-Hyeon SHIN

Visiting Professor, Department of Physics, Yonsei University, KR

Biography

Dr. Yong-Hyeon Shin, who majored in physics, was a researcher at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) for 32 years, developing standards used in advanced industries in the fields of pressure and vacuum metrology and vacuum and plasma process metrology. After serving as the President of KRISS, Dr. Shin was elected to the National Assembly of Korea as a Member representing the science and technology community from 2016 to 2020. Presently, Dr. Shin resides as a visiting professor of the Department of Physics at Yonsei University.

Dr. Shin has previously served as a member of various organizations involved in the establishment of national science and technology policies, such as the National Science & Technology Council, the Presidential Advisory Council on Science & Technology, and the Nanotechnology Arbitration Committee of the Republic of Korea.

Most notably, through her involvement in the Association of Korea Woman Scientists and Engineers(KWSE), which was founded in 1993, Dr. Shin has been at the forefront when it comes to enacting laws to foster women scientists and engineers and promoting policies that support work-family balance. To this day, Dr. Shin strives to improve the education system and establish networks to help women scientists and engineers achieve their full potential.

Title and Abstract

The Power of Women Scientists and Engineers in the Digital Transformation Era

If we are to advance the nation and humanity forward, it will be vital to foster women scientist and engineers, providing them with the support to achieve excellence. Science and technology are more important than ever as nations work to respond to COVID-19, and with the accomplishments of women scientists and engineers being highlighted in the healthcare, medical, bioengineering and information technology fields , many young women have set their sights on entering the science and technology field. Furthermore, the digital transformation has changed the way we work with the emergence of remote working. This has helped in preventing women from missing valuable opportunities or experience due to maternity leaves and has shifted us away from the male-oriented work culture of the past. As such, many predict that the mainstream of science and technology will be comprised of both women and men. On the other hand, certain surveys have suggested that the increased burden of household labor due to remote working could lead to a decrease in competitiveness. This presentation describes the activities of women scientists and engineers in Korea and other countries and propose support policies that can help improve competitiveness.

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